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历史转折下中国应对苏阿战争的整体策略探究

【作者】 邹本硕

【导师】 陈涛;

【作者基本信息】 外交学院 , 外交学, 2020, 硕士

【摘要】 二十世纪七十年代末,在苏攻美守的冷战态势下,苏联发动了对阿富汗的武装入侵。战争的爆发极大地刺激了正在经历历史转折的中国,以邓小平为核心的党中央第二代领导集体经过精心统筹采取了兼具宏观战略谋划和具体政策措施在内的综合应对策略。在战略谋划上,基于美苏在阿富汗的长期争夺态势,中国领导层强化了“联美反苏”路线的推进和落实,中国借苏联侵阿战争进一步提升了对苏强硬姿态,加大了对美合作力度。在具体措施上,中国采取了包括构建反苏舆论阵地、为阿抵抗力量及难民提供援助以及推动反苏统一战线等一系列举措以应对苏联对阿富汗的入侵。通过总结中国在阿富汗事件中所采取的立场措施并同其建国以来参与的其他周边安全事件进行对比可以看出,中国对该事件的应对策略呈现出参与态度强烈、但参与力度有限的两面性特点。通过借鉴对外政策成因的层次分析框架不难发现,中国的应对策略所呈现出的特点是国际因素和国内因素共同作用的结果。就国际层面而言,围绕保障国家安全,改善战略处境这一主要目标,中国基于对苏联安全威胁的权衡、中美苏战略三角关系的转变、反苏同盟战略的继承以及国际战略影响的考量而在参与意愿和参与力度之间拿捏分寸。就国内层面而言,围绕增强国家实力,开展经济建设这一主要目标,中国基于国内经济建设的需求、国家军事层面的盘算、外交政策路线的争论以及邓小平个人决策特点的影响而对该事件采取了审慎参与的应对方式。中国的应对策略最终也赢得了“抗苏援阿”战争的胜利,并收获了良好的政策效果。综合上述分析可以得出,中国对苏联侵阿战争所采取的应对策略呈现出“虚实结合”的特点,而这种游走于“虚实之间”的策略是中国领导人在历史转折的时代背景下对于国家安全目标和现代化建设目标进行综合权衡和细致考量而做出的战略抉择。

【Abstract】 In the late 1970 s,holding the dominant position in the struggle against the United States,the Soviet Union launched an armed invasion to Afghanistan.The outbreak of the war greatly stimulated China,who was undergoing a historical transition.The second generation of top leaders of China with Deng Xiaoping as the core expressed strong indignation and condemnation,and adopted measures varying from the strategic level to the implementing level.It can be found that China’s response to this incident presented the contradictory characteristics of strong declaring willingness to participate while limited efforts in actual participation.It is not difficult to find from the analytic hierarchy process’ s explanation framework of the causes of foreign policy that China’s stance and measures were characterized by the combined effects of both international and domestic level.At the international level,China was participating based on weighing the degree of threats of Soviet Union,changes in strategic triangle relations,succession on anti-Soviet alliance strategy,and the consideration of international strategic status.At the domestic level,China responded to the incident based on the needs of domestic economic construction,the consideration of the country’s military factors,the debate on foreign policy routes,and the impact of personal decision-making characteristics.In the end,its coping policy reaped good results.Based on the above analysis,it can be concluded that China’s response to the Soviet invasion in Afghanistan was characterized by a “combination of virtuality and reality”.The reason was the strategic consideration of China’s leaders based on comprehensively weighing the national security and modernization goals in the historical transition.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 外交学院
  • 【网络出版年期】2020年 08期
  • 【分类号】E512;E372;D829
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